NAFTA Main Page

This page provides NAFTA legal instruments, NAFTA and CUSFTA decisions, and commentary.




  • For statistics on NAFTA/CUSFTA Chapter 19 decisions, see our statistics page.

  • For commentary on NAFTA Chapter 19, see:

Stephen J. Powell, Expanding the NAFTA Chapter 19 Dispute Settlement System: A Way to Declaw Trade Remedy Laws in a Free Trade Area of the Americas?, University of Florida Levin College of Law Research Paper No. 2009-13, available at

Juscelino F. Colares, An Empirical Examination of Product and Litigant-Specific Theories for the Divergence between NAFTA Chapter 19 and U.S. Judicial Review, 42 Journal of World Trade (August 2008), available at

Juscelino F. Colares, Alternative Methods of Appellate Review in Trade Remedy Cases: Examining Results of U.S. Judicial and NAFTA Binational Review of U.S. Agency Decisions from 1989 to 2005, 5 Journal of Empirical Legal Studies 171 (March 2008), available at

John Bohn and Juscelino Colares, NAFTA's Double Standards of Review, Wake Forest Law Review, Vol. 42, Spring 2007.

Juscelino F. Colares and John W. Bohn, A Comparison of U.S. Judicial and NAFTA Panel Review of Trade Remedy Cases, in INTERNATIONAL LAW AND TRADE: BRIDGING THE EAST-WEST DIVIDE 1, 1 (Sylvia M. Kierkegaard ed., 2007).

John Magnus, Lumber and the NAFTA Chapter 19 Mess, Presented to American University, Washington College of Law Conference, Lessons from NAFTA Part I: The Softwood Lumber Dispute, Washington, DC, February 27, 2006.

Lawrence L. Herman, Making NAFTA Better, Comments on the Evolution of Chapter 19, Occasional Papers in International Trade Law and Policy No. 57, Centre for Trade Policy and Law, March 2005.

Patrick Macrory: NAFTA Chapter 19: A Successful Experiment in International Trade Dispute Resolution, C.D. Howe Institute Commentary, No. 168, September 2002.

Kent Jones, Does NAFTA Chapter 19 Make a Difference? Dispute Settlement and the Incentive Structure of U.S./Canada Unfair Trade Petitions, 18 Contemporary Economic Policy 3 (2000), pages 145-58.

David Gantz, Resolution of Trade Disputes under NAFTA's Chapter 19: The Lessons of Extending the Binational Panel Process to Mexico, 29 Law and Policy in International Business 3 (1998).

Gregory Carman, Resolution of Trade Disputes by Chapter Nineteen Panels, 27 Stetson L. Rev. 2, 643 (1997).

Gustavo Vega-Canovas, Disciplining Anti-Dumping in North America: Is NAFTA Chapter Nineteen Serving its Purpose?, 14 Arizona Journal of International and Comparative Law 479 (1997).

Burke, R. and Walsh, B., NAFTA Binational Panel Review: Should it be Continued, Eliminated or Substantially Changed?, 20 Brooklyn Journal of International Law 3, 429 (1995).

Harry L. Clark and John R. Magnus, Fix NAFTA’s Dispute System, Journal of Commerce, September 8, 1995.

Homer E. Moyer, Jr., "Chapter 19 of the NAFTA: Binational Panels as the Trade Courts of Last Resort," in THE NORTH AMERICAN FREE TRADE AGREEMENT: A NEW FRONTIER IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND INVESTMENT IN THE AMERICAS 291 (Judith H. Bello et al., eds. 1994)